Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Revision - Sovereignty and Partition

Cuman na Gaedheal
1922 – 1932
Taoiseach – W T Cosgrave

Fianna Fail 1932 – 1948
Taoiseach - Eamon DeValera
Economic crisis - Aftermath of War of Indep and Civil War
Partition – southern Irish economy poor – high unemployment
Dependence on UK re finance and trade
Rural focus – low industrialisation
Central Policy focus on Agriculture sector – free trade – low taxes – link Irish pound with sterling
Patrick Hogan – standards of production, advisers, ACC set up to offer cheap loans, land commission, land Act
Less focus on Industrial Policy – Free Trade vs Protectionism debate – Fiscal Enquiry Committee
Tariffs on small amount of products 1924/35 – concentrate on free trade
Shannon Scheme – major achievement 1929 – cheap power for Industry and public – ESB set up to distribute through one of the first National Grids in Europe
Low Taxes and cuts in spending
Cuts in Old Age pension and no of people getting social Welfare
‘Ultimate Financial Agreement’ with Britain – commitment to pay €5milion of Land Annuities
Some success – agricultural exports increase, small increase in industrial employment, budget balanced
- 30’s World Depression
Economic War + 30’s depression – devastating effect for farmers
Self – Sufficiency
James Ryan - subsidies for farmers – encourage to switch from cattle (arable farming) to crops (tillage) – fixed prices for sugar beet
Industry focus – Sean Lemass
Protectionism – encourage Irish industry set up ICC to give cheap loans to Industry
Semi State Companies set up – Irish Sugar Company, Aer Lingus, Board na Mona, Irish Life
Increase in taxes and some spending
1933 – Unemployment Assistance Act, National Insurance Act – improve benefits.

Improved Old Age and blind pensions 1935 – pensions for widows and orphans introduced.
1932 – Housing Act – improved housing provisions
End to Land Annuities – final Lump Sum Agreed
Some success – more in Industry than Agriculture - some increase in Jobs in Industry but still high unemployment and wages low – increase in Taxes and cost of living
Consolidating Democracy
Continuity and Conservatism
Creation of Civil service
Creation of Legal System
Deals with Boundary Commission and Anglo-Irish Agreement
Law and Order – sets up Garda Siochana – deals firmly with Army Mutiny 1924
- detention without trial to deal with increased IRA violence
- Electoral Amendment Act 1927
- Constitution Amendment act – military tribunal set up to try political offences – power to declare organisations illegal – IRA declared illegal
Peaceful transition of power to FF.
Creation of new Constitution
Bunreacht na Heireann – Irish Constitution 1937
Socially conservative re role of women and role of catholic church – irish lang
Deal with threat from O Duffy + Blueshirts – march banned – ACA declared illegal
1936 – declared IRA illegal and key members arrested
Foreign (Inc Anglo
Join League of Nations
Part of the Commonwealth
Follow the terms of the Treaty
Dismantling the Treaty – ‘changes’ – ‘radicalism’
Active Role in the league of Nations, 1933 Abolished Oath of Allegiance,
Downgraded and abolishing the role of Governor General,
Ended the right of appeal to the Privy Council, Abolished the Senate, 1936 External Relations Act,
Bunreacht na Heireann, Economic War,
1938 Anglo Irish Agreement - end of land Annuities and return of Treaty Ports

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